United Mexican States
Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Mexico is located in Middle America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, between Belize and the United States and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Guatemala and the United States. Its people are a blend of Amerindian, Spanish and Mestizo blood. A federal republic, Mexico consists of 31 states and a single federal district serving as its capital. The republic is led by a popularly elected President who serves as both head of state and chief of government. Legislation is the jurisdiction of the bicameral National Congress made up of the Senate and Federal Chamber of Deputies.
The site of advanced Amerindian civilizations, Mexico came under Spanish rule for three centuries before achieving independence on September 16, 1810. For years, Mexico suffered economic turmoil and hardships. To this day, the nation struggles with ongoing economic and social concerns including low real wages, underemployment for a large segment of the population, inequitable income distribution, and few advancement opportunities for the largely Amerindian population in the impoverished southern states.